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Environmental Consulting 

Medicine Bow Resources Projects

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On the job


CERCLA-Remedial Programs

Remedial Programs, Copper Basin Mining District, TN

Hydrologist and water quality specialist at a Superfund alternative mega-site comprised of 32-square mile Cu-Zn-Fe mining district and 20 miles of the Ocoee River contaminated by metals and acid mine drainage. Assisted USGS sediment transport specialist with design and implementation of a 2-dimenstinal sediment transport model to evaluate the fate and transport of copper slag, iron calcine and other mining wastes through a 20 mile corridor of the Ocoee River. The Ocoee is an extremely high profile river for white water rafting hosting the 1996 Olympic events and up to 5,000 recreational rafters per year. The model will be used to design and evaluate alternatives for sediment remediation. Additional project responsibilities have included evaluation of water quality data and loadings to identify and prioritize waste source remedial actions, preparation of a site management plans, watershed modeling using HEC-HMS, water surface profile modeling using HEC-RAS, conducting Remedial Investigations, Feasibility Studies, EECAs and TMDL planning; extensive client support in coordination meetings with PRP, State and other Federal Agencies.


Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Madison County Mines
NPL Site, MO

Currently evaluating "Nature and Extent" and "Fate and Transport" of lead and associated heavy metals and contaminants from over 150 years of mining activities in and around Madison County Missouri in the center of the “Lead Belt”. To date activities have included developing field sampling plans (FSP) and experimental designs for characterization of contaminant transport in sediments and water in area streams, rivers and lakes.


Mine Site Closure Plan – McKittrick Diatomite Mine, CA

Senior Consultant, Project manager and technical consultant to develop a site closure and reclamation plan for a pilot scale open pit mine, operated in the 1980s by Getty Oil. The original project was to extract and retort product from an oil-laden diatomatous earth formation (similar to oil-sands). The project included the environmental and geotechnical characterizations of mine pit walls, waste rock piles, and the pilot retort facility, and developing remedial and reclamation plans and obtaining all required State of CA CEQA and construction permits for site closure. The mine site was successfully reclaimed and closed by Chevron Texaco in 2004.


Removal Action – Project Oversight, Grouse Creek Mine, ID


Technical consultant and oversight for the implementation of a highly controversial non-time critical removal action that includes the discharge of cyanide and metals-laded process water into streams containing T&E salmon species. Support includes review of both hydrologic and water quality data associated with cyanide and metals contamination in surface and ground water; conducting water quality modeling using CORMIX to examine mixing zone behavior in the receiving stream; developed effluent limits according to EPA guidance for the discharge of effluent into receiving stream; review and oversight of other remedial alternatives development; oversight of project implementation; and technical support in the coordination with other agencies, including NOAA Fisheries, USF&WS, and Native American tribes.


Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Brewer Gold Mine, SC


Conducted site reconnaissance, defined water-related data needs, and developed data collection plans for hydrogeologic and hydrologic characterization of heavy metal transport in surface and ground water systems.




Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Henry’s Knob Mine, SC

Currently evaluating site surface and ground water quality data obtained for HRS scoring activities and listing of the site under Superfund. Activities will include oversight of workplans and RI/FS activities and documents being developed by the site’s Principal Responsible Party (PRP).


Stream Channel Restoration, Stibnite Mine, ID

Development of Rosgen stream channel restoration design of area impacted by over 100 years of gold mining. Guided and oversaw channel design intended to improve aquatic and fishery habitat and to develop a hydraulically stable channel and a functional floodplain. Project was implemented as a result of EECA which was also prepared by this employee. Project was extremely controversial because stream system was populated by Chinook salmon, Steelhead, and Bull trout, all Federally listed species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).


Remedial Investigation Oversight, Stibnite Mine, ID

Provided oversight of site characterization and risk assessment programs being conducted by principal parties at the Stibnite Mine Site. Provided additional support developing remedial goals and strategies to address water quality impacts from gold mining operations. The work included evaluating remedial plans prepared by the company, recommendations for additional sampling and data analysis, and supporting IDEQ in meetings with the interagency team that includes USFS, EPA, NMFS, and USFWS and the mining company.


Remedial Work Plan, Stibnite Mine, ID

Project Manger for Remediation Work Plan. Prepared a Remediation Work Plan to develop a remediation and reclamation strategy for the mining area. Developed remedial alternatives independent of those developed by the PRP and oversaw development of cost estimates in consultation with Idaho DEQ and Payette NF. The results were used by the Forest Service and Idaho DEQ in negotiations with the PRP.


Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Oversight, Rocky Flats Weapons Plant.

Provided project management support and oversight of the M&O contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration program at Rocky Flats. Responsible for oversight of a multi-million dollar CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) and an Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for a ground water/soil operable unit. Conducted oversight of site ground water contaminant transport modeling programs and for modeling and monitoring programs for the vadose zone contaminants. Conducted research and developed guidance for the DOE on the selection of remedial actions for treating DNAPL contamination in ground water. On behalf of the DOE, developed technical position papers and successfully eliminated specific metals as COCs in ground water. Interfaced with regulatory agencies to develop compliance programs.



Clean Water Act - NPDES, TMDL

Sediment Delivery & Yield Modeling for TMDL Compliance

Developed a storm water sediment delivery model using WEPP and HEC-RAS to predict sediment loads that would result from proposed placer garnet mining operations. Modeling was conducted to be in compliance with a TMDL and calculate pollutant trading credits required to obtain NPDES storm water permits. Consulting included presenting, negotiating, and obtaining approval of the modeling methods used to calculate pollutant credits with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality.


Carlota Copper Project TMDL, Globe AZ

Prepared TMDL and Technical Support Document for the Pinto Creek watershed near Globe Arizona, an historic copper mining district. Pinto Creek and its tributaries are ephemeral flowing only in response to rainfall and snow melt events. Developed a HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model and incorporated existing water quality data to construct a flow-tiered mass balance model for dissolved copper. The model was used to identify sources, evaluate existing pollutant loading, determine loading capacities and margins of safety, and calculate load and wasteload allocations in the ephemeral drainage. Assessed the pollutant loading reductions that were necessary to achieve compliance with water quality criteria and developed implementation strategies to achieve these reductions. As a part of the TMDL implementation plan, identified an abandoned mine area in the headwaters of the stream as a major contributing source and factor leading to the non-attainment of water quality standards. Remedial activities were identified to reduce copper loadings from the abandoned mine that would meet the allocations set forth in the TMDL. Upon the completion of remedial activities, loadings of dissolved copper from the abandoned mine will have been brought into compliance with the TMDL, and the mining project could be granted an NPDES permit. As a result, a stream that had not been meeting water quality criteria will be brought into compliance under the Clean Water Act at the same time that a newly proposed mine operation is permitted within that watershed.

Coeur d’Alene River TMDL

Prepared a TMDL and Technical Support Document for the Coeur d’Alene River in Northern Idaho, the site of an historic mining district. Data analysis required integration of several thousand data points, evaluation of their accuracy. To design the TMDL, developed a flow-tiered, and hardness-tiered, mass balance model to evaluate the mass loading of dissolved zinc, lead, and cadmium and the incremental effects on water quality from identified point and non-point sources. The model served as a basis for developing load allocations and wasteload allocations throughout the watershed. As part of this TMDL, assessed the pollutant loading reductions that were necessary to achieve compliance with water quality criteria and evaluated the feasibility of achieving these pollutant reductions for each source. The TMDL incorporated a large number of point source discharges (greater than 70) which all required the development of waste load allocations. Continued support by developing a comment response database that included, categorized, and presented responses to approximately 900 comments.



Authored Guidance Documents

Mine Site Water Balance Manual

Principal author of reference manual on issues and analyses associated determining water balance at mine sites. Text surveys analytic methods and issues associated with rainfall-runoff prediction, hydrogeologic and geostatistical analyses, stochastic analysis of climatic and hydrogeologic variables, storm flow routing and detention basin design, mine site closure, and suggested uses of both surface and ground water models, including HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, MODFLOW and HELP. Anticipated publication date of September 2005.


Performing Quality Flow Measurements at Mine Sites.

Developed hydrologic guidance outlining field methods for performing measurements of stream flow, storm water, water balance, adit discharge and NPDES outfalls at active and abandoned mine sites. Published in 2001as EPA 600/R-01/043.


EPA and Hardrock Mining: A Source Book for Industry in the Northwest and Alaska

Author of technical appendices of major guidance, including all or portions of appendices on Hydrology; Receiving Waters; Erosion and Sedimentation; and Aquatic Resources. Methods are outlined for watershed analysis, hydrology, water quality, water balance determinations and sedimentation under NEPA and Clean Water Act. Published in 1999 and 2003 as EPA 910-R-99-016.




Small-Scale Suction Dredging EIS

Lead hydrologist and water quality specialist for programmatic EIS to evaluate impacts associated with recreational suction dredging for gold in two creeks with endangered salmonids (Chinook salmon and bull trout). Conducted sediment analysis and prepared the water-related background documents supporting the EIS. Draft EIS issued in 2004, final delayed pending archaeological surveys.


Emerald Creek Garnet Mine Expansion EIS

Conducted hydrologic, hydrogeologic and sedimentation analyses for preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed expansion of the Emerald Creek Garnet Mine in Fernwood, Idaho. Analyses include watershed modeling, floodplain, and hydrogeologic analyses to determine impacts for an expansion of existing placer operations. Project included the development of a Technical Resource Document for Water Resources in support of the EIS.


Kensington Mine Project Supplemental EIS

Conducted analyses for hydrology, erosion and sedimentation and surface water quality for the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) at the Kensington Gold Mine, Alaska; developed the Hydrologic Technical Resource Documents supporting the EIS; conducted oversight and review of stochastic modeling conducted by the mine to predict tailings impoundment operations, water balance, and water quality discharge.


Carlota Copper Project Supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA)

Project Manger and Senior Scientist. Prepared Supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) for EPA Region IX for issuance of an NPDES permit for the Carlota Copper Mine Project, AZ. The assessment evaluated two additional permit conditions in relation to discharge of effluent to Waters of the United States that were not originally evaluated by the project Environmental Impact Statement. Project included developing a comment summary and comment response document for the EA.


Multiple Proposed Mine Project EIS Reviews

Provided technical reviews on hydrology, design of hydrologic control structures, hydrogeology, sedimentation, and water quality for various hardrock mining Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) and technical support documents. Projects include: Red Dog (AK), Thunder Mountain (ID), Stibnite (ID), Yarnell (AZ), Carlotta (AZ), and Castle Mountain (AZ).



Oil Shale Projects

Colony Oil Shale Project

Designed a vadose zone/soil monitoring program using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and tensiometers on field test plots and in weighing lysimeters filled with spent oil shale waste at a pilot oil shale retorting facility in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Installed instrumentation during construction of the waste facility and trained company personnel in the use of the TDR monitoring equipment and software. Coded and designed custom software for use in analyzing moisture flux and groundwater recharge at the site.


Spent Oil Shale Disposal – Research Grant

As a Research Associate at the University of Wyoming, was a co-project manager for a DOE $2-million dollar research program to evaluate hydrologic, hydrogeologic, and geotechnical factors associated with the solid waste disposal of spent oil shale in the Piceance and Green River Basins of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. In cooperation with other UW scientists, designed a large-scale indoor test-bed facility to evaluate contaminant transport and to test in situ remediation alternatives in disposed waste and ground water. The test-bed facility utilized Lafayette rainfall simulation systems, climatic control, and runoff collection to conduct rainfall-runoff analyses, infiltration studies, and evaluation of contaminant fate and transport. Designed and coded custom computer programs to automate climatic control, rainfall/runoff measurements, and for the design of rainfall hyetographs to provide input driving programs to the rainfall system. Provided oversight of graduate students and research technicians conducting vadose zone modeling studies, bench-scale leachate studies, and soil-water retention studies. Conducted and managed parallel field research activities for AMOCO at a pilot Rio Blanco Oil Shale facility in the Piceance Basin (Tract C-a).

Developed the use of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) instrumentation for monitoring unsaturated moisture flux in highly alkaline waste. He developed and coded customized real-time data acquisition and analysis software for monitoring TDR instrumentation in the vadose zone. Mr. Reeves published in two refereed technical journals and in numerous technical proceedings outlining the use and automation of TDR in highly alkaline and saline, oil shale wastes.

Evaluated the evaporative disposal of waste waters from the production of alternative fossil fuels, including oil shale, tar sands, Geokinetics, and in situ coal gassification. Developed and coded real-time data acquisition software to measure field evaporation, conducted statistical studies, and developed predictive models for estimating evaporative rates from chemically complex waters. Conducted stochastic modeling studies to optimize the design of evaporation ponds for waste water disposal.


Miscellaneous Projects
Hydrology, Hydrogeology, and Vadose Zone Hydrology

Watershed Yield and Water Balance Studies

Conducted watershed modeling using HEC-1 and site investigations to evaluate runoff from ephemeral mountain front drainages for Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Conducted research to evaluate the potential for identification of sites and methodologies for increasing recharge to local aquifers for the fort. Designed and recommended sedimentation and erosion studies in support of a Biological Assessment.


Vadose Zone Monitoring Program

Designed a vadose zone/soil monitoring program using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), tensiometers, and soil-water extraction samplers on a site for the aerial disposal of stripped process water at Wharf Resources, Inc., a heap-leach gold mine. Trained mine personnel in the operation of the data-logging equipment, instrumentation, data analysis software, and in analyzing TDR data to measure the flux of aerial disposed waters in the vadose zone.


Vadose Zone Monitoring Program

Designed a vadose zone/soil monitoring program using TDR to evaluate RCRA Cap performance for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado and provided oversight to the prime contractor in the system installation and for analysis of data.





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